Scientists determine how exercise and diet affect the body at the cellular level

Scientists have discovered for the first time what happens at the cellular level when you exercise and start dieting.

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New DelhiAnd theupdated: October 8, 2022 at 17:13 IST

Running Dieting Exercises

Research reveals that high-fat diets and exercise have opposing effects on cellular pathways. (Image: Getty)

By India Today Web Desk: We’ve all been there when it comes to gaining and losing weight, we’ve all been through exercise, running, and weightlifting to balance our weight, and we’ve all wondered how one exercise helps us gain weight and the other helps us shed it. .

Scientists have discovered for the first time what happens at the cellular level to find out the mechanisms behind this process, which so far has proven difficult due to the involvement of a large number of cells and tissues. A team of researchers conducted a study on mice to understand how exercise and diet affect the body.

they The study was published in Science Direct, which identifies the prominent role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in obesity and exercise-induced tissue adaptation.

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A team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard Medical School has mapped the cells, genes and cellular pathways that are modified by exercise or a high-fat diet. The new findings could offer new avenues for developing drugs that could help enhance or mimic the benefits of exercise and diet.

cells
Researchers conducted a study on mice to understand how exercise and diet affect the body. (Image: Getty)

It is extremely important to understand the molecular mechanisms that lead to the beneficial effects of exercise and the harmful effects of a high-fat diet so that we can understand how to intervene, and to develop drugs that mimic the effect of exercise on multiple tissues. Manolis Kilis, professor of computer science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, said in a statement.

The researchers analyzed the response of 53 types of cells found in skeletal muscle and two types of adipose tissue to either high-fat or normal diets given to mice. They used single-cell RNA sequencing to analyze changes at cellular levels. RNA sequencing was performed on three types of skeletal muscle tissue, visceral white adipose tissue (which is packed around internal organs, where it stores fat), and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (found under the skin and primarily burning fat).

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One general point that we found in our study, which is very clear, is how high-fat diets push all of these cells and systems in one way, and exercise appears to push nearly all of them in the opposite direction. Manolis Kilis added that he says exercise can have a huge impact throughout the body.

They cataloged the genes that were activated or repressed by exercise in cell types and found that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) appeared to control many of the diet and exercise-induced effects they observed.

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The researchers also note that high-fat diets and exercise have opposing effects on the cellular pathways that control the 24-hour circadian rhythms that control many functions, from sleep to body temperature.

“There are a lot of studies showing that when eating during the day is critical to how calories are absorbed. The circadian rhythm connection is very important, and it shows how obesity and exercise directly affect the circadian rhythm. In peripheral organs, which can That it works systemically into the distant hours and regulates stem cell and immune functions, Kellis said.

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